The Arabic script

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The Arabic script is one of the most widely used scripts in modern times.

The Arabic alphabet consists of 29 letters, although it is disputed whether the letter ‘Hamsa’ belongs to it. Arabic is a left-to-left cursive script, meaning it is a cursive font that is shifted from right to left. The appearance of the letters depends on where the letter is in the word: at the beginning of the word, within the word, or at the end of the word. 6 letters are not connected to the left and that means that they always have the same appearance in their three possible positions in the word. These letters are the letters ا, د,ذ,ر, ز, و.

The Arabic script: the letters and all their possible manifestations

Letter (sound)Name of the letter or the letter at the beginning of the wordLetter within the wordLetter at the word ending
ا (a)أليفباببابا
ب (b)باءابنباب
ت (t like the English T)تاءاتصالاثبات
ث (like the English ‘th’ in thing)ثاءاثباتثلاث
ج (the English g like in gym)جيماجتماعأعوج
ح (like in the known word ‘habibi’)حاءاحتمالأصح
خ ()خاءاختأخ
د (d like the englisch D)دالأداةولد
ذ (th wie das englische ‘th’ in together)ذالإذالذيذ
ر (rolled ‘r’ the way it is pronounced by some people with accents)راءإرسالكبير
ز (z like the English Z)زايإزعاججهاز
س (s like in absolutely)سينأسدشمس
ش (sh like in wish)شيناشغالوحش
ص ()صاداصابةباص
ض ()ضادإضافةأرض
ط ()طاءإطلاعبلاط
ظ ()ظاءحافظ
ع ()عينأعينمجتمع
غ ()غيناغتسال
ف (f like the english F)فاءإفريقياءكتف
ق (q)قافاقتصادطلاق
ك (k like the english K)كافاكتفاءشك
ل (l like the english L)لامالبومفيل
م (m like the English M)ميمأميأم
ن (n wie das deutsche M)نونإنسانإن
ه (h wie das deutsch H)هاءإهلاكبنته
و (w like the English ‘w’ in want)واوأولاواو
ي (j like the English J in ‘January’)ياءأينباي
ء (a glottal stop – has all the properties of a letter and can therefore be counted as a letter)هامزو/ءأئمةإكتفاء

Consonants and vowels in Arabic

In Arabic, there are consonants, so-called middle sounds, and vowels. Mid-sounds and vowels. Mid-sounds are any sounds that, when pronounced, impede the flow of air and narrow the speaker’s vocal range. All letters are actually consonants except و and ي, which are consonants in some cases and vowels in some cases. The vowels are the counterpart of the consonants and are any sound whose pronunciation does not lead to closure or narrowing, allowing the air to flow freely. They can be divided into short and long vowels. The short ones are fatha, kasra, damma, and sukun and the long ones are: بَا, بِي and بُو. The vowels are always above or below the letters and as far as pronunciation is concerned, the letter is pronounced first and the vowel.


The ta-marbuta is the feminine suffix with few exceptions. It is only written at the end of a word. When pausing it is pronounced like an -a- and when reading classically the pronunciation is -at-.

That was The Arabic Script. If you enjoyed the article, then why not learn Arabic personal pronouns or suffixes next.

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