Sentence structure in Arabic

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In Arabic, a sentence can be formed with just one word. In this article, we will introduce you to Sentence structure in Arabic as well as parts of sentences in the Arabic language and their grammatical cases.

Sentence structure in Arabic

There are noun clauses and verbal clauses in Arabic that you can distinguish from their specific characteristics regarding the grammatical cases and parts of sentences.

Nominal sentences

Noun clauses contain at least a subject or prepositional group and a predicate, and they may or may not have an object, specifically an adverb. The subject pr prepositional group is the subject of the sentence and is always in the nominative case. The predicate that follows reveals more about the topic. It can e.g. be an adjective or be introduced by a preposition. The predicate, like the subject or the prepositional group, is in the nominative. In addition, the noun clause can also contain an object that or placed after it, and is mostly an adverbial designation of place or time. denoted by the accusative. If a لكن occurs, it comes before the structure or before the beginning of the sentence. Verbs have no place in a noun clause.

Examples of nominal sentences:

هو كبير

هذا القلم فوق الطاولة جميل

Verbal sentences

Verbal clauses begin with a verb. However, a verbal clause can also begin with an adverbial designation of place or time, because these can be brought forward or placed at the end. In the noun clause, everything is in the accusative, including the first member of the genitive compound, except for the subject, which must be in the nominative. Verbal sentences are recognized most easily, quickly, and clearly by the fact that they contain a verb.

Examples of verbal sentences:

ذهب الموظفون إلى المكتب \ (الموظفون) ذهبوا إلى المكتب

ذهبت الموظفات إلى المكتب \ الموظفات ذهبن إلى المكتب

Genitive connection

Genitive conjunctions can appear in noun and verbal clauses. It is a combination of two nouns, the first of which is the headword and the second either an indication of possession or affiliation with the headword, or a more specific descriptor that determines the headword. After prepositions or from the 2nd member of a genitive compound (arabic: إضافة) or status constructus, all remaining members of the genetive compound are in the genetive. Long connections sometimes lose their clarity because (grammatically) it is no longer entirely clear which nouns refer to each other. The problem can be circumvented by splitting the status constructus with ل.

Tanwin of the 3 cases

  • definite nominative: ُ
  • indefinite nominative: ٌ
  • definite genitive: ِ
  • indefinite genitive: ٍ
  • definite accusative: َ
  • indefinite accusative: ً

Note!: For the ending of the feminine person plural, ات, there are only two cases instead of three, namely the nominative, which is known to be definite ُ and indefinite ٌ , and the second case, in which the genitive and accusative are reduced to the form of the genitive and accusative. So there are only the following four manifestations: ُاتُ, -ات and -اتِ, -اتٍ

Subject in Arabic

The subject is determined by

  • proper noun
  • nouns with a persona suffix
  • definite article ال
  • personal pronouns
  • demonstrative pronouns

Predicate in Arabic

Predicate can be

  • indefinite adjective
  • indefinite noun
  • definite noun by a personal suffix
  • prepositional group
  • proper noun

That was Sentence structure in Arabic. If you liked the article, then feel free to read the article about demonstrative pronouns in Arabic here.

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